Encouraging downstream processing: industrial policy or resource nationalism?

Why is it crucial to consider downstream processing at this time? There has long been a discussion in economic policy circles about downstream processing, most notably in the context of central planning or mercantilism, as evidenced by the former Soviet Union. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the demise of central planning, and the dismal outcomes of industrial policy as it was implemented in both developed and developing nations during the 1970s and 1980s, it would have been simple to assume that this conversation had come to an end. It seemed reasonable to assume that recent history would have provided enough empirical proof to reassure even the most doubtful. Over the last three decades, global trade has expanded at an unprecedented rate, leading to a significant decline in poverty. This can be attributed, at least in part, to specialization and the dispersion of supply chains. Notably, global trade has outpaced global GDP growth, refuting the claims made by proponents of policies

Evaluating and Enhancing Techniques for Housing the Well-Being Elderly: Enhancing Life Quality

1. Overview

Sustainable development is defined as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987. This definition highlights the need for environmentally, socially, and economically responsible decision-making [1, 2]. Therefore, research on how to create a friendly city and sustainable policies during the development of a global city should not overlook the elderly population in response to the issue of an aging society and the goals of sustainable development in terms of economic growth, social services, and environmental improvement [3]. But the problem of an aging population is unique to every nation and area. The senior population requires specialized and resource-intensive services, therefore planning and initiatives related to the urban environment, communities and neighborhoods, housing regulations, social welfare, and quality of life must take this into account [4]. Strategies for ongoing improvement and sustainable urban growth are only achievable through this.

Globally, the number of people over 60 is predicted to reach over 2 billion by 2050 [5]. As a result, maintaining the health of the elderly is a much more pressing issue than the aging of the population. In addition to developing elderly-friendly cities, the World Health Organization's 2007 report suggested initiatives such as using the concept of "positive aging" as a guiding principle for the development of aging cities and enhancing the productivity and welfare of urban residents through the modification and services of urban structures. By providing living settings that offset the physical and social changes associated with aging, this helps the elderly [6]. However, housing has a significant role in determining people' safety and well-being as well as sustainable development in terms of health [7]. As a result, housing plays a crucial role in the lives of the elderly, and studying the factors that influence and shape the housing environment can assist solve the pressing concerns of preserving the health and enhancing the quality of life for these individuals.

2. The framework, analysis, and evaluation of the current state of senior housing quality

The impacts of housing on the health and well-being of the elderly have been extensively studied in aging-related research [3,14,20,25], with the home environment being cited as a predictor for healthy aging [26]. Nevertheless, a large number of these studies lacked validity and a thorough evaluation of their specific methodologies because they were grounded in descriptive research [4,8,12,16,27]. Improvements in the social environment were the emphasis of certain intervention strategies [4,11,26,29], while others [15,17,24,28] concentrated on the physical environment. Even while research on housing and how it affects older adults' health has received widespread recognition, these studies have rarely used real-world performance evaluation data to inform the development of practical reform plans. Because there is a complicated web of interrelationships among interior housing elements that might be detrimental to health, this study focuses on the effects of the indoor living environment on the health of the elderly. "The housing and residential environments are localities having high environmental health risks in relation to injury from accidents, as well as infectious and non-communicable diseases," the member states of the World Health Organization agreed upon in 2010 [30]. Therefore, the assessment framework does not include influencing elements that fall outside the purview of the indoor living environment, such as the social environment, healthcare services, and towns and neighborhoods. The focus of the research has been reduced to significant indoor dwelling elements that have a direct impact on senior citizens' health and safety. Through literature review, the assessment dimensions and criteria were taken from earlier studies.

2.1. Security of the Person

An active intervention method is used in the evaluation and renovation of the older population's original residence in order to increase safety and reduce accidents. Every intervention strategy for evaluation and enhancement concentrates on both the current situation and, more crucially, the future of life [27]. The elderly can be encouraged to be more mobile and able to participate in everyday activities in a safe and autonomous manner in a well-designed outdoor space in a residential area [28]. Tests must be conducted on the housing buildings' structural durability [17,47] as well as the strength of the doors, windows, and other pertinent components. It is necessary to take into account the housing's resilience to calamities like earthquakes and typhoons. Furthermore, it is imperative to implement and enhance fire facilities, alarm systems, evacuation protocols, and emergency lighting in order to avoid and respond to fire incidents [48]. The main factors that contribute to electrical fires include misuse of electrical appliances, electrical overload from indoor power consumption, and damage or exposure of gas connections [47]. Because of these problems, elderly people may experience unintentional fatalities and injuries due to a decline in their perceptual and sensory abilities.

2.2. Comfort of the Senses

The living quarters of the elderly provide a number of danger concerns [34], one of which is their perception of their physical surroundings. Older adults may experience physical and sensory discomfort as well as a frightening and detrimental impact on their health from these issues. Heat is one of the four characteristics for the comfort of indoor environments that were previously discussed. It can also be understood as the degree of contentment with the indoor temperature. Heat is related to the sense of thermal comfort, which is the degree of satisfaction with a warm environment [37]. Extreme temperatures can be uncomfortable for the elderly. According to Frontczak and Wargocki's research, humans can control the environment's temperature by changing their behavior [39]. Ormandy and Ezratty further note that the strategy for adjusting a home's interior temperature is based on the occupant's impression of thermal comfort rather than an ambient temperature reading. This method has the advantage of taking into account subjective perceptions as well as other variables, especially those that are challenging to quantify [40]. Thus, different requirements apply to what constitutes a pleasant indoor temperature in senior housing.

2.3. Features Related to Space

The WHO (2007) introduced the concept of "age-friendliness," which aims to give older people greater places and opportunities to engage in activities and improve their mobility within communities and neighborhoods [4,29]. As a result, communities and neighborhoods can offer senior citizens somewhere to go and engage with people as well as socializing possibilities [58,59]. A decent place to live can also double as a gathering place for social activities. Empirical research has demonstrated that enhancing senior citizens' living quarters can augment and foster the availability and accessibility of housing [19]. For example, a better living area can be used for entertaining, relaxing, and hosting guests. In a research on the quality of life for senior citizens residing in communities with their families, Rioux finds that the residents who have lived there for a long time are most content when they have visits from other individuals.


Postingan populer dari blog ini

Encouraging downstream processing: industrial policy or resource nationalism?

How university students' knowledge of green products affects their plans to buy green products: a view from a growing market

Integrating Sustainability Into Business Models

Search This Blog