Encouraging downstream processing: industrial policy or resource nationalism?

Why is it crucial to consider downstream processing at this time? There has long been a discussion in economic policy circles about downstream processing, most notably in the context of central planning or mercantilism, as evidenced by the former Soviet Union. With the fall of the Soviet Union, the demise of central planning, and the dismal outcomes of industrial policy as it was implemented in both developed and developing nations during the 1970s and 1980s, it would have been simple to assume that this conversation had come to an end. It seemed reasonable to assume that recent history would have provided enough empirical proof to reassure even the most doubtful. Over the last three decades, global trade has expanded at an unprecedented rate, leading to a significant decline in poverty. This can be attributed, at least in part, to specialization and the dispersion of supply chains. Notably, global trade has outpaced global GDP growth, refuting the claims made by proponents of policies

How university students' knowledge of green products affects their plans to buy green products: a view from a growing market

Promoting the environment

These days, green marketing is very important in the market. Green marketing includes all marketing activities, such as packaging, product modification, and manufacturing methods that are done in a way that doesn't hurt the environment and still meets customer needs. [21]. According to Pagliacci et al. [56], green marketing is the process of putting green goods on the market without hurting the environment. To put it simply, green marketing is when goods are sold in a way that doesn't hurt the environment. It makes sense that consumers' plans to buy green products are mostly based on how helpful the product is and how much they care about the environment [33]. However, even though consumers said they cared about the environment, this doesn't mean they actually buy or adopt green goods [51, 57]. This is the reason why customers don't do much to promote sustainable consumption [76]. So it makes sense that Dangelico and Vocalelli [21] say "environmental sustainability is the third goal, after customer satisfaction and company profitability." Green marketing has a lot of problems, like people not agreeing on what "green" really means [62], the need for a standard way to tell if a product is organic or not, and the fact that people need time to get used to the idea [45]. One of the perks of green marketing [45] is that it can help businesses keep growing and making money.

Buying green goods

Experts and pros in marketing have focused on the idea of the "green consumer" as the central idea around which all environmental marketing strategies have been built [3]. People who make a strong effort not to buy possibly dangerous products are called "green consumers" (GCs) [34]. Additionally, GCs are people who don't buy or use any products that hurt or damage living things or the earth, either during production or use [75]. Again, GCs are thought to be environmentally conscious and loyal customers [70] who know a lot about environmental problems [47]. GCs are people who think they have power over their behavior and who see green ads [39]. Green products may cost more than traditional products, but GCs still buy them because they think they will benefit them in the long run [63]. Again, GCs think about how what they're buying might affect other people, which sets them apart from regular shoppers [36, 48, 56]. Also, the fact that GCs are present suggests that green marketing should be used [56].

Being aware of green goods

As the name suggests, green products (GPs) are goods that are good for the environment, healthy, energy-efficient, reusable, and so on [12]. Usually, natural methods are used to make GPs in a way that is more durable and doesn't use any harmful chemicals [22]. GPs are items that are good for the environment because their production doesn't have a big effect on it [31, 56]. This study explains that a "green product" is one that doesn't waste resources or hurt the earth and can help protect it. It's important for people to know about green products before they buy them. Consumers' decisions about what to buy are affected by knowledge about green products. However, green goods could become more well known through labeling, packaging, and advertising [63]. People who know about and have used GPs agree that they make the world a better place [61]. Nguyen et al. [51] said that consumers will be more likely to reach their personal environmental impact goals if they are aware of how well green goods work. This shows that knowing about green goods can affect how people choose to buy things, which can help the market have a better outlook [53]. Again, teaching people about GPs would make them more likely to use them, which would make them green customers [51]. GPs are good for the environment, and everything people do has an impact on the environment. Green goods are designed to cut down on waste and costs [63]. Since people are getting to know GPs better, they are reminded of their presence, which could affect their plans to buy green products and their actions afterward.

Green price thought

The main thing that stops people from buying green goods is usually the price. Green consumers are only willing to pay more for a product if they know that its features, designs, and functions will help them, their families, and future generations [38, 43, 46, 63]. Awuni et al. [10] say that green consumers are not scared off by the prices of green products because they like products that are good for the earth and are willing to pay more for them. Again, the prices of green products don't stop people from buying them, so price doesn't play a big role in people's plans to buy green goods [16]. Also, consumers think that green goods are worth more and are more likely to buy them if the prices are fair. For example, Chinese people care about the environment, which is why they are willing to pay more for green goods [47]. According to some study, people in emerging markets are willing to pay more for green products [9]. However, other research [73] found that people were not willing to pay more for green products. From what we've talked about so far, it's clear that the price of green goods does affect people's plans to buy them [46]. In conclusion, one of the main reasons people buy green goods is how much they think it costs [63], and the price of a green product has a bigger effect on people's decision to buy it.


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